Managing the socio-economic impact of tin mining on Bangka Island, Indonesia - preparation for closure

Dr. Eddy Nurtjahya, M.Sc., - and Dr. Fournita Agustina, S.P., M.Si, - (2015) Managing the socio-economic impact of tin mining on Bangka Island, Indonesia - preparation for closure. In: Proceeding of the 10th international conference on Mine Closure. Australian Centre For Geomechanics, Canada. ISBN 978-0-9917905-9-3

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Tin mines in the Bangka Belitung Islands have been exploited for about a hundred years. Following the issuance of a 1999 Ministry of Trade and Industry decree that tin is not an export item to be monitored and regulated, the Bangka regent issued a decree giving permission for the people to mine tin in 2001. Consequently, “unconventional mines” (tambang inkonvensional), the term used to describe local small-scale tin mines, have expanded significantly since 2000. Bangka Island has a surface of 11,900 km2 and is mainly lowland below 50 m with some hills up to 700 m; climatic differences within the island are small. Its climate is hot and wet with an average annual rainfall of approximately 2,400 mm. Mining activities are spread across the island and run by one publicly listed tin mining company, dozens of private companies and thousands artisanal mining groups. Tin mining activities increase the wealth of the people, but they decrease environmental stability. Offshore mining has reduced water quality as total soluble solids have increased and pH decreased; changes in the seabed have caused changes in benthic flora, fauna and plankton diversity and an increased mortality index of coral reefs and their associated fish. The number of fish caught in the offshore mining site has decreased. Inland mining activity has reduced soil fertility and flora and fauna diversity. Inland mining has reduced the number of individuals, species and plant families. In some areas, illegal mining causes floods in the rainy season and damages roads and bridges. Socio-economic secondary data were collected from various sites on Bangka Island through a literature review. In addition to inadequate commitment and political will on the part of the local and national governments, a low level of law enforcement seems to be a dominant factor in the low environmental awareness. These findings may be used to accelerate the mine closure program started by the largest tin mining company. This paper illustrates some opportunities and alternatives.

Item Type: Book Section
Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
Depositing User: UPT Perpustakaan UBB
Date Deposited: 26 Mar 2020 04:51
Last Modified: 16 Jun 2023 06:49

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